Online Vs. In-Campus, Comparative Analysis of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, Student Engagement and Satisfaction: A way forward for Post COVID-19 Era


  • S Suriagiri Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
  • N Norlaila Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
  • Albertus Wahyurudhanto Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • A Akrim Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Teaching Presence, Students’ Cognitive Presence, Social presence, Content Quality, Students’ Satisfaction with E-learning Experience, Online Learning Readiness, Community of Inquiry Model


The education sector was severely impacted due to the pandemic; thus, educational institutions had to shift toward an online learning system. This adaptation in the educational system posits a challenging question: which mode of learning would be best to engage and satisfy the students in the post-COVID-19 era? Therefore, drawing on the self-identity theory, this study explores the differential impact of intrinsic motivational factors (interest/enjoyment, competence, autonomy, and belongingness) on digital engagement and online class satisfaction versus on-campus psychological engagement and physical class satisfaction. Surveying 496 students from six Indonesian universities shows that digital technologies make the learning process interesting and joyful for students compared to on-campus classroom learning, thus resulting in more digitally engaged and satisfied students. Simultaneously, competence is found to be positively impacting online and on-campus students’ engagement and satisfaction at an equal level. Moreover, autonomy and belongingness show more students’ engagement and satisfaction within the campuses than in an online learning mode. These findings suggest that the post-COVID-19 era can take advantage of both these methods to incorporate a hybrid mix of blended learning to achieve the best learning outcomes in terms of engagement and students' satisfaction. Implications for higher education institutions and directions for future research are suggested.



6 Dec 2022