Electronic Journal of e-Learning 2024-04-25T13:59:19+00:00 Karen Harris Open Journal Systems <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning (EJEL)</strong> provides pedagogical, learning and educational perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-learning initiatives. EJEL has published regular issues since 2003 and averages between 5 and 6 issues a year.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of both theory and practice in the field of e-learning. The Editorial team consider academically robust papers and welcome empirical research, case studies, action research, theoretical discussions, literature reviews and other work which advances learning in this field. All papers are double-blind peer reviewed.</p> Harnessing AI for Education 4.0: Drivers of Personalized Learning 2024-04-03T11:58:12+00:00 Gina Paola Barrera Castro Andrés Chiappe Diego Fernando Becerra Rodriguez Felipe Gonzalo Sepulveda <p>Personalized learning, a pedagogical approach tailored to individual needs and capacities, has garnered considerable attention in the era of artificial intelligence (AI) and the fourth industrial revolution. This systematic literature review aims to identify key drivers of personalized learning and critically assess the role of AI in reinforcing these drivers. Following PRISMA guidelines, a thorough search was conducted across major peer-reviewed journal databases, resulting in the inclusion of 102 relevant studies published between 2013 and 2022. A combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses, employing categorization and frequency analysis techniques, was performed to discern patterns and insights from the literature. The findings of this review highlight several critical drivers that contribute to the effectiveness of personalized learning, both from a broad view of education and in the specific context of e-learning. Firstly, recognizing and accounting for individual student characteristics is foundational to tailoring educational experiences. Secondly, personalizing content delivery and instructional methods ensures that learning materials resonate with learners' preferences and aptitudes. Thirdly, customizing assessment and feedback mechanisms enables educators to provide timely and relevant guidance to learners. Additionally, tailoring user interfaces and learning environments fosters engagement and accessibility, catering to diverse learning styles and needs. Moreover, the integration of AI presents significant opportunities to enhance personalized learning. AI-driven solutions offer capabilities such as automated learner profiling, adaptive content recommendation, real-time assessment, and the development of intelligent user interfaces, thereby augmenting the personalization of learning experiences. However, the successful adoption of AI in personalized learning requires addressing various challenges, including the need to develop educators' competencies, refine theoretical frameworks, and navigate ethical considerations surrounding data privacy and bias. By providing a comprehensive understanding of the drivers and implications of AI-driven personalized learning, this review offers valuable insights for educators, researchers, and policymakers in the Education 4.0 era. Leveraging the transformative potential of AI while upholding robust pedagogical principles, personalized learning holds the promise of unlocking tailored educational experiences that maximize individual potential and relevance in the digital economy.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gina Paola Barrera Castro, Andrés Chiappe, Diego Fernando Becerra Rodriguez, Felipe Gonzalo Sepulveda Exploring the Characteristics and Attitudes of Electronic Textbook Users and Nonusers 2023-10-09T11:54:28+00:00 Tracey A. Anderson Lori Baker-Eveleth Robert W. Stone <p>A technological trend influencing society is the provision and adoption of digital books. Digital books are used in education in the form of electronic textbooks (e-textbooks). The research question examined in this manuscript is which students’ characteristics and attitudes influence their adoption or non-adoption of e-textbooks? The study explores these characteristics and attitudes of students who have made the decision to become either an e-textbook user or nonuser. The empirical analysis is conducted using 1191 student responses to a questionnaire distributed in a mid-sized university in the western United States. Among these 1191 responses, 530 of the students had used an e-textbook and 661 had not used an e-textbook. The e-textbook user and nonuser groups are studied in three different ways. The first is by examining the counts and percentages for five respondent characteristics. The second way is through statistical tests (i.e., t-tests and multiple analysis of variance) on these characteristics across the groups. The results from these analyses did not identify any meaningful differences in characteristics across the user and nonuser groups. The third way was a content analysis performed on an open-ended question (i.e., What factors influenced you on whether to use an e-textbook?) on the questionnaire. The student e-textbook attitudes discovered from the content analysis showed that for e-textbook users, the cost or price of an e-textbook had a significant influence on e-textbook adoption. Two other attitudes influencing e-textbook users’ adoption were usability, both positive and negative. The key attitude of nonusers regarding e-textbook adoption is negative e-textbook usability.</p> 2024-05-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Tracey Anderson, Lori Baker-Eveleth, Bob Stone A Robust Examination of Cheating on Unproctored Online Exams 2023-11-30T19:23:20+00:00 Richard Fendler David Beard Jonathan Godbey <p>The rapid growth of online education, especially since the pandemic, is presenting educators with numerous challenges. Chief among these is concern about academic dishonesty, especially on unproctored online exams. Students cheating on exams is not a new phenomenon. The topic has been discussed and debated within institutions of higher learning, and significant levels of cheating have been reported in the academic literature for over sixty years. Much of this literature, however, has focused on student behavior in a classroom utilizing proctored, in-class exams. Grades on exams usually determine most of a student’s final grade in a course, and GPAs are used by employers and graduate schools to indicate a student’s subject matter mastery. As more conventional colleges and universities expand their online course offerings it is natural to wonder if academic dishonesty is more prevalent in online classes than in face-to-face classes. In particular, are students more likely to cheat when no one is watching (i.e., on unproctored assessment assignments) than they do when someone is watching (i.e., on proctored assessment assignments)? The purpose of this study is to investigate whether students cheat more on unproctored online exams than they do on proctored in-classroom exams, and if so, is there any pattern to their cheating behavior. Our findings are derived from careful empirical analysis of 741 undergraduate students who completed three unproctored online exams, several collaboration-encouraged assignments, and a proctored in-class comprehensive final exam in the same course with the same instructor. Additionally, we collected demographic and human capital data for every student. Using bivariate and regression analysis, we find significant evidence of more cheating on unproctored online exams than on proctored in-class exams even though students were given stern honor code violation warnings. Moreover, we discover that student cheating increased with each unproctored online exam, implying that students learn how to cheat as they become more familiar with taking online assessment assignments. Finally, we find that students with certain demographic and human capital characteristics tend to cheat more than others. This research strongly supports the use of proctoring for all evaluation assignments in online classes to ensure that grades in these classes properly reflect student aptitude as opposed to merely reflecting their ability to cheat.</p> 2024-05-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Richard Fendler, David Beard, Jonathan Godbey Exploring the Impact of Online Teaching Environment on EFL Teachers’ Professional Identity 2024-01-23T15:03:45+00:00 Haya Fayyad Abuhussein Amjad Badah <p>The impact of COVID-19 on the higher education sector has extended beyond using alternative technological methods. It has also influenced the professional identities of instructors themselves. This study aims to investigate EFL instructors’ perceptions of the impact of online teaching on identity transformation during the COVID-19 lockdown. It also investigates how online teaching has affected teachers’ professional identity in relevant aspects. The study was conducted during the first academic semester of 2022/ 2023. The researchers adopted a mixed research methodology that involved both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. A questionnaire was distributed to (44) EFL instructors, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with (8) EFL instructors at the Department of Languages and Translation at a Palestinian University, Palestine. Appropriate quantitative and qualitative analyses were utilized to figure out participants’ responses to the questionnaire and the interviews. The results of the survey revealed that online teaching positively influenced instructors’ social relations with their colleagues and students, enhanced the teaching process, and promoted instructors’ self-esteem. As for the interviews, the findings showed the substantial impact of online teaching on EFL instructors’ identity in terms of their professional needs, self-awareness and self-esteem, relationships with learners, relationships with colleagues, and their perspectives towards their institution. Hence, some recommendations were suggested.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Haya Fayyad Abuhussein, Amjad Badah