Electronic Journal of e-Learning 2021-07-28T08:49:47+00:00 Meryl Toomey Open Journal Systems <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning (EJEL)</strong> provides pedagogical, learning and educational perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-learning initiatives. EJEL has published regular issues since 2003 and averages between 3 and 4 issues a year.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of both theory and practice in the field of e-learning. The Editorial team consider academically robust papers and welcome empirical research, case studies, action research, theoretical discussions, literature reviews and other work which advances learning in this field. All papers are double-blind peer reviewed.</p> An Electronic Collaborative Learning Environment for Standardized Tests 2021-04-22T16:12:40+00:00 Sultan Alyahya Asma Aldausari <p>The National Center for Measurement (Qiyas) was established for the purpose of conducting standardized tests in Saudi Arabia. The center has developed multiple Qiyas tests such as the General Aptitude Test (GAT) and the Scholastic Achievement Admission Test (SAAT).&nbsp; Qiyas tests are used as a pre-requisite requirement for applying to universities and to certain kinds of jobs in Saudi Arabia. Currently, students use traditional methods to prepare for these tests, e.g., studying from books and searching for available learning resources on the internet. These web-based resources are mostly static and only have general guidelines about the tests and a history of available test samples. This research proposes a computer-based collaborative learning (CL) environment that helps support learners during their preparation for the Qiyas tests. A four-stage approach is used in this research: (1) an intensive review of 30 CL platforms is carried out to investigate the available features, (2) two workshops are conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of the features identified in Stage 1 as well as to investigate what other features would be appropriate for Qiyas tests, (3) a CL platform is developed for Qiyas tests for a total of 21 features, (4) and, lastly, the platform is evaluated using two methods, in-depth interviews with experts and an empirical study with instructors and learners. The results show that the platform helps support learners in the participative, cognitive, interactive, and social dimensions of the learning processes. The results also help instructors promote the teaching experience.</p> 2021-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using e-Learning in University Education: Analyzing Students’ Perspectives 2021-04-22T16:18:28+00:00 Alaa Zuhir Al Rawashdeh Enaam Youssef Mohammed Asma Rebhi Al Arab Mahmoud Alara Butheyna Al-Rawashdeh Butheyna Al-Rawashdeh <p>: The architecture of a learning system implies a heavy task for e-learning to be integrated into a complicated system that is flexible, time scalable, and capable of lasting, even though there are many diverse tools. Currently, higher education in United Arab Emirates is experiencing a major transformation, considering increased accessibility. Therefore, the study aims to identify the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning in university education in United Arab Emirates. A descriptive study design was used to randomly select students from Ajman university, who were enrolled in 2018/2019 academic year. A close-ended structured questionnaire was constructed to collect data from students. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data collected. 81% students stated that e-learning provides scientific material in an interesting way. Similarly, 80% students have responded that e-learning increases the possibility of contact between students among themselves and between the students and the teacher. 73% students indicated that due to increasing social isolation, they spend more time in front of the technical means of social interaction account and face-to-face with others. 70% students have indicated that there is a presence of electronic illiteracy among parents, which reduces their ability to follow their children electronically. It is essential for potential e-learners to understand the differences between an e-learning classroom setting and a conventional classroom setting as there are both advantages and disadvantages of e-learning to both environments that can probably influence their overall performance as a student.</p> 2021-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pathways to a Knowledge Society: A Proposal for a Hierarchical Model for Measuring Digital Literacy Among Israeli pre-service Teachers 2021-05-17T09:12:01+00:00 Yehuda Peled Gila Kurtz Orit Avidov-Ungar <p>This paper presents the results of an empirical study on validation of performance statements for an inventory of the digital literacy skills required for learning. These skills are used to determine digital readiness of pre-service teachers. The paper reports on validation of an adjusted set of 54 performance statements which were categorized into seven digital learning domains. The seven digital learning domains were validated based on structural equation modelling which was then confirmed by factor analysis using AMOS software. The results of the analysis indicate the existence of a multi-layered model where all digital learning domains are positively connected to each other. Our findings therefore suggest a strong statistical validity of the performance statement inventory. The findings also point to the fact that pre-service teachers are in a transit phase from digital immigrants to digital natives. That, in the context of Covid-19 pandemic, implies the need to invest in appropriate preparation and training of pre-service teachers to teach in an online environment. &nbsp;The inventory for measuring digital literacy can be used to assess teachers’ digital readiness on a regular basis, thereby enabling them to adjust the teaching materials and pedagogy to achieve the required level of digital readiness, as defined by the school.</p> 2021-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Moodle and Problem-Based Learning: Pedagogical Designs and Contradictions in the Activity System 2021-05-17T09:18:41+00:00 Rikke Ørngreen Sara Paasch Knudsen Ditte Kolbæk Ditte.Kolbæ Rune Hagel Skaarup Jensen <p>This paper presents an empirical study and related activity system analysis regarding the implementation and use of Moodle specifically, and learning management systems in general, in problem-based learning. The research involved an exploration of the characteristics that defined use of Moodle at a Danish university, the reasons why Moodle was or was not used in specific contexts and the way in which Moodle use was perceived by students. Some of the obstacles and challenges identified through this study highlighted the need for a deeper analysis of the elements that characterised the activity system(s) and their contradictions in this contextual setting, leading to a consideration of possible implications for change processes. The investigation consisted of a literature review, a survey of 345 students regarding their experiences with Moodle in conjunction with a nomination for the best Moodle course, an analysis of the 178 nominated courses and interviews with four university teachers about their use of Moodle. This examination revealed that many existing Moodle activities at Aalborg University focus more on sharing information and teaching materials and less on the students’ problem-based learning activities and projects. This finding is intriguing, as use of Moodle does not reflect that problem-based learning comprises the pedagogical foundation of Aalborg University’s academic programme. The investigation uncovered several reasons for the lack of focus on problem-based learning in Moodle structures and content and explored them through the contradictions identified within the activity systems and between the double contextual frame surrounding the interacting activity system.</p> 2021-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Convergence of Online Teaching and Problem Based Learning Modules amid the COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-07-06T11:47:23+00:00 Daniel Bumblauskas Nick Vyas nikhilvy@marshall.usc.ed <p>There is a convergence unfolding between two formerly unique and separate areas of teaching research methodology: distance education and problem-based learning (PBL) environments.&nbsp; Much has been published on each field independently, however, in the modern-era of online, distance, and hybrid educational programs there is a need for more case and experiential-based learning activities which can effectively measure stated learning objectives.&nbsp; Trends in education have led to the development of various methods to instruct courses and conduct research online. Teaching research methodology and pedagogy have evolved to include video capture, remote conferencing, and other real-time communications techniques allowing faculty and students to collaborate across great distances. Meanwhile, PBL environments have been used extensively in teaching medicine, clinical practice, law, business/management, and many other disciplines to improve student learning.&nbsp; This has been further accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic through the use of technologies like Zoom, WebEx, GoToMeeting, Google Hangout Meet, etc. and the availability of PBL-ready environments in breakout rooms and asynchronous simulated projects.&nbsp; Student preference data from 2020 are reported as part of this study.&nbsp; One example of this merger between online delivery and PBLs was the development of a PBL statistical process control (PBL-SPC) module.&nbsp; A cross-functional academic team was created across both a college of business and college of education in which a PBL-SPC module was developed based on a real-life situation in which students immerse themselves in a potato chip factory environment.&nbsp; The motivation for the PBL-SPC was that this is a challenging topic to cover which students often find difficult to relate to and/or boring.&nbsp; Three different scenarios were developed and students, as individuals or in teams, must traverse the simulated factory to assess the situation.&nbsp; Learning outcomes are measured by the course instructors and the PBL environment is being used by faculty around the world. Additionally, the PBL-SPC module has now been scaled to other applications such as six-sigma simulated project training during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pedagogical methods should be interactive, stimulate learning, improve the learning outcomes / critical thinking, and enhance student experience. This paper proposes that merging the effective and tech-friendly pedagogical methods of PBL-SPC, with the right modalities and model of online delivery, can help achieve these aforesaid goals. Even more, it can deliver a great opportunity to educators and institutions worldwide for advancing the reach of education.</p> 2021-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Auditory Attention of Non-native Speakers in e-Learning Environments 2021-07-06T12:25:27+00:00 Nikesh Bajaj Jesús Requena Carrión Francesco Bellotti Riccardo Berta Alessandro De Gloria <p><strong>:</strong> One of the most striking characteristics of e-Learning audiences is their diversity. Native and non-native learners can be expected among such audiences and therefore, when developing e-Learning courses it is important to consider the impact of the language level on learning. Specifically, non-native learners are expected to have a diminished auditory perception compared to native ones and hence reduced attention capabilities that could result in a poorer performance. In this study, we assess the impact of linguistic and auditory factors on the attention of non-native learners, namely semanticity, sentence length and noise level. An English language platform mimicking real e-Learning environments is used and attention is quantified by measuring the number of English words correctly identified during a listening task. Our results show that changes in each factor affect the attention score significantly. Interestingly, the effects of semanticity are apparent in noiseless environment, but vanish in noisy ones. &nbsp;Results also show that in noiseless environments, a change in the length of semantic sentences from small or medium to long causes a significant drop in the attention score. Our results demonstrate the importance of carefully accounting for linguistic and auditory factors when designing effective e-Learning courses, especially when they target global audiences and learners with different language abilities are expected.</p> 2021-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Effects of Video Lecture Design and Production Quality on Student Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment Exploiting Change in Online Course Development Principles 2021-07-06T16:49:49+00:00 Marketa Rickley Pavlina Kemp <p>In seeking competitive advantage, many online graduate programs have turned to improving the quality of video lectures by investing in instructional designers and in-studio production. However, it is unclear how much video lecture design and production quality improve student outcomes. We used a regression discontinuity to evaluate how video lecture design and production practices that adhere to principles of multimedia learning affect perceived learning and student satisfaction. The study involved 300 students taking an online graduate course at a large, public research university, where 194 students were exposed to video lectures designed and produced by the instructor and 106 students were exposed to video lectures designed in collaboration between the instructor and instructional designers and produced in studio. Our findings indicate that designing and producing video lectures in accordance with principles of multimedia learning has a meaningful causal effect on students’ perceived learning and a marginal effect on student satisfaction. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings for video lecture development and design in the context of online business education and the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2021-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shaping Teachers' Perceptions of their role in the Digital age Through Participation in an Online PBL-based Course 2021-07-08T15:15:48+00:00 Orit Avidov-Ungar Dina Tsybulsky <p>Our research traced significant learning experiences of teachers enrolled in a Master's degree program in teacher education, in an attempt to understand how participation in an online course that employs the project-based learning (PBL) approach influenced their perceptions of the teachers' role in the digital age. Data was collected from 2014 to 2016 using: (a) a questionnaire gathering learners' personal and demographic details (<em>n</em> = 55) and (b) reflective reports on the learners' learning experiences in the course (<em>n</em> = 105). Content analysis of the data revealed that participants considered personal, pedagogic, and social aspects important in terms of the learning experience and this also informed their role perception as teachers in the digital age. Similarly, exposure to the PBL approach via an online framework directly influenced participants' learning experiences and role perception. The findings indicate that teachers should be given access to a learning experience combining online learning and teaching practice to allow them to form their role perception as digital-age teachers. Practical implications of the research relate to teachers' socialization in the digital age.</p> 2021-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Building an e-Learning Application Using Multi-agents and Fuzzy Rules 2021-07-13T14:47:15+00:00 Magdi Amer Hossam Aldesoky <p>One of the biggest challenges in education is teaching mathematics, especially to children. It has been proven that difficulties students face when learning basic mathematics are often the result of previously acquired misconceptions. These misconceptions prevent the student from understanding new concepts and will eventually create a psychological barrier that prevents the student from learning more advanced mathematics. The conventional classroom environment does not provide the teacher with the most efficient means to detect and correct such misconceptions. The goal of our research is to develop an e-learning system for basic mathematics that is capable of providing each student with personalized content to overcome these misconceptions. The system uses a multi-agent architecture to monitor the activity of the student while simultaneously observing and modeling the student’s knowledge and misconceptions. Lessons and exam questions are chosen dynamically by the multi-agent system to cover the prerequisites of new lessons depending on the profile of the user.</p> 2021-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Quantifying and Incentivizing Exploration of Reputable Sources for Argument Formation in an Online Discussion Forum 2021-07-28T08:49:47+00:00 L Square V van der Heyde D. Smith <p>Nuclear power forms part of the first-year physics undergraduate course work in the extended curriculum program at the University of the Western Cape. This investigation intends to assist students in mastering their understanding of how nuclear power works through the development of critical thinking skills around the topic and to create awareness among students of the implications of expanding a nuclear power footprint. Through debate, students in this course investigate the impact of South Africa increasing its nuclear footprint within a global context. In this work, students were encouraged to explore publications and reputable websites surrounding this topic and based on their findings formulate arguments. The authors conceptualized and developed a Sakai tool (based on Learning Tools Interoperability), called Reference Register (RR) to compliment the work. RR stores the reference uploaded by each student, shares uploaded literature resources to the group members, and quantifies the number of times a student uses a reference when presenting their argument. The incorporation of the RR was intended to encourage students to formulate arguments based on well-founded literature. Authors sort to investigate in which ways and to what extent does an online discussion forum facilitate students becoming ethically, environmentally, and socially aware in the area of nuclear energy and to assist students in becoming better in their professional communication skills. The outcome of this student engagement included students becoming familiar with what constitutes a well-formulated scientific argument based on a literature review, group engagement, becoming aware of South African current affairs regarding nuclear power, and its social and economic impact.</p> 2021-07-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021