Electronic Journal of e-Learning https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning (EJEL)</strong> provides pedagogical, learning and educational perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-learning initiatives. EJEL has published regular issues since 2003 and averages between 5 and 6 issues a year.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of both theory and practice in the field of e-learning. The Editorial team consider academically robust papers and welcome empirical research, case studies, action research, theoretical discussions, literature reviews and other work which advances learning in this field. All papers are double-blind peer reviewed.</p> <p>This year, in additon to welcoming papers on all aspects of e-Learning, we are pleased to announce three special issues on the topics of <strong>Educational Escape Rooms</strong>, <strong>Extended Realities</strong> and <strong>Artificial Intelligence in Education</strong> - see announcements below for further information.</p> Academic Conferences and Publishing International en-US Electronic Journal of e-Learning 1479-4403 <p><strong>Open Access Publishing</strong></p> <p>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning operates an Open Access Policy. This means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the <em>full texts</em> of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, is that authors control the integrity of their work, which should be properly acknowledged and cited.</p> Micro-Celebrities or Teacher Leaders? An Analysis of Spanish Educators’ Behaviors on Twitter https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2833 <p>Social networking sites have become affinity spaces for teachers. Many teachers use them with different intentions and motivations, including learning. On social media platforms there are active teachers who have developed a certain leadership and recognition from many teachers. In some areas, like marketing or fashion, people with influence are called influencers. This paper investigates who they are, how their network is configured and how they perceive themselves. The questions that directed our research were: Who are the predominant Spanish teacher leaders on Twitter? What is the network structure that characterizes them? What perceptions do these teacher leaders have about their role and its impact on their professional development as teachers and others? This study has two distinct but interrelated phases. We investigated the structure and relationships among 54 Spanish teacher leaders. Using a social network analysis (SNA) approach, through the analysis of the social behavior of these teachers on the social network Twitter, we first identify educational profiles who have a high degree of centrality in the network. These are teachers who are recognized as opinion leaders by a significant proportion of their fellows. In addition to the degree of centrality that tells us how relevant a user is in a specific digital community, we identified teachers who play a key role in the circulation of information in the network studied. In some way, these teachers share common characteristics with activists in other fields. Of the 54 teachers, we selected 20 who were then interviewed. The findings demonstrate that they don't consider themselves micro-celebrities or influencers. We found a lack of identification not only with the term, but also with the image of an influencer which was understood as banal, superficial, commercial, and far from what they do in social networks.These teachers develop their identity as new digital artisans who foster a culture of collaboration and create affinity spaces that allow informal learning. Their motivation is intrinsic, through recognition and prestige among other teachers, which leads them to build a kind of constructivist leadership.</p> Carlos Marcelo Paulino Murillo Paula Marcelo-Martínez Carmen Yot-Domínguez Cristina Yanes-Cabrera Copyright (c) 2023 Carlos Marcelo, Paulino Murillo, Paula Marcelo-Martínez, Carmen Yot-Domínguez, Cristina Yanes-Cabrera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 4 258 273 10.34190/ejel.21.4.2833 Mapping Research Themes and Future Directions in Learning Style Detection Research: A Bibliometric and Content Analysis https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3097 <p>This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state and potential future research in learning style detection. With the increasing number and diversity of research in this area, a quantitative approach is necessary to map out current themes and identify potential areas for future research. To achieve this goal, a bibliometric and content analysis will be conducted to map out the existing research and identify emerging topics and directions for future research. The study analyzes 1074 bibliographic sources from Scopus and visualizes the results of the bibliometric analysis through co-occurrence and thematic map analysis using VOSviewer and BibliometriX software. Content analysis is then conducted based on the results of the co-occurrence analysis. The findings reveal a significant increase in publications and citations in the field, with popular research topics including classification, adaptive learning, and MOOCs, and the most frequently used learning style models being Felder-Silverman, VARK, and Kolb. Emerging research topics include the use of EEG signals, online learning, and feature extraction. Future research may focus on classification, intelligent tutoring systems, MOOCs, online learning, adaptive learning, and deep learning. This study provides valuable insights into the current and future research trends in learning style detection, which can support the development of adaptive e-learning systems, intelligent tutoring systems, and MOOCs. By identifying popular research topics and emerging areas of study, this research can guide the design and implementation of effective online learning environments. Additionally, the study advances the field of e-learning knowledge by providing a comprehensive overview of the most frequently used learning style models and potential research areas. It sheds light on the ongoing development of learning style detection research and the potential for future advancements in the field, ultimately contributing to the growth and improvement of e-learning practices.</p> Adi Wijaya Noor Akhmad Setiawan Mohd Ibrahim Shapiai Copyright (c) 2023 Adi Wijaya, Noor Akhmad Setiawan, Mohd Ibrahim Shapiai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 4 274 285 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3097 Predisposition of In-Service Teachers to Use Game-Based Pedagogy https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3135 <p>Digital game-based learning (DGBL) can be regarded as a promising teaching pedagogy to prepare students for challenges of the 21st century. However, the incorporation of digital games into K-12 curricula remains limited. Research suggests that a comprehensive understanding of barriers and motivational factors that teachers face when implementing DGBL is needed to ensure that teachers can receive the support required. To delineate suggestions for tailored curricula on game-based pedagogy in teacher education programs, we conducted a study to gain insight into in-service teachers’ perception of DGBL in relation to their previous experience in teaching with DGBL. To achieve our goal, we examined the factors that impede and promote the implementation of DGBL among in-service teachers who are presently pursuing master's level education programs, having in mind that this group of teachers is different from pre-service teachers. Data was collected using an online survey with open- and closed-ended questions. The sample consisted of in-service teachers (n=37) who were enrolled in a master’s course in math education. The data analysis conducted was of a qualitative nature. One significant finding derived from this study is that the level of pedagogical experience in utilizing games as a teaching tool appears to be a crucial factor in understanding the inclination of in-service teachers towards game-based pedagogy. Pedagogical factors were mentioned by teachers at all stages of experience with DGBL, and differences were observed between teachers at different stages. For instance, in-service teachers with experience with DGBL (intermediate and advanced stages) were concerned about being able to maintain focus on the math concepts, the need to adapt the game lesson to students, and the ways to evaluate student learning less experienced teachers were essentially concerned about ways to control the classroom during DGBL and whether the pupils would receive adequate practice in this learning mode. Differences were also noted for other factors between teachers at different stages. Advanced stage teachers did have concerns about game appropriateness for the intended learning; teachers with less experience were concerned about the lack of games (technical factors). Dealing with an existing curriculum and high workload were common aspects for teachers with no or some experience but only teachers with some experience mentioned obstacles related to school organization (structural factors). Teachers with few and some experience referred to the lack of knowledge and competence (personal factors) and that pupils would not take the lessons with games seriously (social factors). This research supports DGBL- practice (i) by adding new knowledge on the factors that can support or constrain the integration of DGBL and its implications for the development of curricula on game-based pedagogy; (ii) by providing suggestions to design and implement meaningful curricula on digital game-based pedagogy for teaching education and training programs.</p> Sonia Palha Ljerka Jukić Matić Copyright (c) 2023 Sonia Palha, Ljerka Jukić Matić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 4 286 298 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3135 The Antecedents of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Applications Continuance Intention https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2744 <p>The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that influence the continuance intention to use Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) applications in the context of language courses in Indonesia. The study aims to understand the key factors that contribute to users' intention to continue using MALL applications, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the shift towards online and remote language learning. The research used the expectation-confirmation model and self-determination theory. Moreover, the research utilized a mixed-methods approach to achieve its objectives. A quantitative approach was employed, involving a survey with 445 respondents who had experience using MALL applications. The survey data was then analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling. Additionally, qualitative research was conducted through interviews with 17 respondents to gain a deeper understanding of rejected hypotheses and gather qualitative insights. The most important results of the research include identifying the factors that influence the continuance intention to use MALL applications. The study found that users' perceived usefulness of the application, their satisfaction with its usage, and their self-regulation ability significantly influence their intention to continue using MALL. These findings highlight the importance of these factors in shaping users' decision to persist with MALL applications for language learning. By understanding the factors that influence users' intention to continue using MALL, educational institutions and application providers can improve their offerings and tailor them to meet the needs and expectations of learners. This research advances the e-learning area by shedding light on the factors that influence the continuance intention to use MALL applications. By uncovering the importance of perceived usefulness, satisfaction, and self-regulation ability, the study contributes to the understanding of user behavior and decision-making in the context of e-learning. The findings can inform the design and implementation of MALL applications, leading to more engaging and effective language learning experiences in online and remote settings. This research contributes to the advancement of e-learning practices by providing evidence-based insights into the factors that drive user intention and adoption of technology in language learning.</p> Ferdinand Hanif Faozi Putu Wuri Handayani Copyright (c) 2023 Ferdinand Hanif Faozi, Putu Wuri Handayani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 4 299 313 10.34190/ejel.21.4.2744 Motivationally Appealing Computer Science e-Learning Games: An Inclusive Design Approach https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3083 <p>Research has shown that e-learning games do not have the same level of appeal to girls, as they do to boys; particularly in the crucial 11-14 age group. In the United Kingdom, this is typically when they start to make subject choices that impact their future studies and careers. Given the shortage of females who choose computer science as a career, this study explores how e-learning games can be designed to be motivationally appealing to young learners. It further explores the role of game representations and its appeal to this age group. This empirical study addresses the research question: “Can we develop e-learning games which appeal and motivate girls of age 11-14 to study computer science concepts?” Two e-learning games were developed: one included game representations such as game colour, graphics, character, age appropriateness, storyline, number of players, violence, identified as appealing to young females and the other game included antithetical or neutral representations. The two developed prototypes were used to explore key e-learning game representations as used to teach computer science concepts. A total of 304 participants, comprising of 152 girls and 152 boys from a combination of same sex and mixed secondary schools in Southeast England, engaged with both experimental games. The experiment also elicited information on how learners interact with these games and the resulting game appeal, motivation and learning. The insight gained from the analysis of data captured during the experiments, provide the evidence to demonstrate that inclusive e-learning games which motivate and appeal to girls of age 11-14 can be developed. This can have a positive influence on their willingness to use such games to learn computer science concepts. This implies that the study found positive outcomes related to e-learning game appeal, motivation and the learning of girls of this age group. A follow-up longitudinal study could investigate the impact of significant e-learning game representations that appeal to the target group. This could provide additional evidence on the changes in the appeal of the investigated significant game representations over time, due to the influence of other factors such as socio-economic and socio-cultural differences. This understanding can further enhance inclusive e-learning strategies to improve diversity in computer science education and consequently the career pipeline.</p> Osemwegie Joseph Osunde Liz Bacon Lachlan Mackinnon Copyright (c) 2023 Osemwegie Joseph Osunde, Liz Bacon, Lachlan Mackinnon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 4 314 327 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3083 Leadership in Online Education: A Scoping Review https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3072 <p>Over the last two decades, we have witnessed a growing interest in online learning. There is an increased focus on online education research due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as the crisis led to online education platforms becoming a necessity for educationists and students. This article reviews online education, purely, in the context of leadership. Past reviews have focused on concepts surrounding online learning such as technology, pedagogy, and student satisfaction. However, limited attention has been drawn to leadership exclusively in relevance to online education. The scoping review analyses 63 articles published between 2002-2022 to answer two research questions. First, what are the research concepts, theories, models, and frameworks operationalized in the publications within this topic domain? Second, who are the stakeholders and leaders identified in literature? Through synthesizing alternative research perspectives in the field of leadership, education, and information and communication technology (ICT), this review identifies four categories of research literature relevant to the topic domain. Following themes emerged from the analysis of the publications: impact of leadership on online education; student experience in an online leadership programme; impact of online education on leadership development of actors in an online education setting; and perception of leadership in an online education setting. Based on the review, an agenda is proposed for future research to enhance our understanding of the role of leadership in online education and elucidate the relationship between leaders and online learning in educational institutions. A lack of focus on the key leaders in the existing literature is made apparent, and further empirical research is recommended. This review makes a theoretical contribution by consolidating existing research in leadership in online education through the synthesis categories and identifying future research pathways. The findings have practical implications for leadership in online education in educational organizations through identification of stakeholders and the entities in leadership positions.</p> Ammara Awais Copyright (c) 2023 Ammara Awais https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 21 4 335 352 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3072 LAA: Learn the Arabic Alphabet: Integrating Gamification Elements with Touchscreen Based Application to Enhance the Understanding of the Arabic Letters Forms https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3043 <p>Touchscreen devices provide a variety of features and engaging interaction which offer a significant incentive for them to be adopted for learning purposes. They facilitate access to educational resources at any time and broaden the study contents beyond the formal curricula of educational institutions. This is promoted by employing educational applications that stimulate learners to interact effectively with the learning material to gain motivation, influencing their accomplishments in the targeted subject. However, some applications fail to provide a variety of feedback to their stakeholders by relying on evaluating learners either negatively or positively in a simplistic manner and with a lack of reinforcement. This unsuitability and the lack of feedback can lead to a weak level of interaction and decrease students' comprehension levels. In this paper, a multi-platform touchscreen-based application has been developed by adopting gamification to support learners with limited literacy skills in acquiring the Arabic alphabet. A study was conducted on 75 native Arabic learners studying in the first and second year of elementary level in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the system's ability to increase learners’ knowledge of the Arabic alphabet. The sample was divided into three groups; experiment, and control groups (both first-year) and second-year groups. The experimental group utilized the application after taking the pre-test, while the control group interacted with the learning material traditionally with their teachers. The second-year group results assisted the study in investigating the system's ability to rapidly boost the experiment group's comprehension of the targeted subject since the second-year learners were more experienced in Arabic letters than the experiment or control groups. The results of the comparison of the pre-test and post-test showed that the experiment group overtook the control and the second-year group regarding the post-test score, which indicates the system's ability to increase learners’ knowledge level. By providing an interactive and engaging learning experience, the developed application has shown the ability to increase learners' knowledge levels significantly. These research findings have implications for educators, learners with limited literacy skills, curriculum developers, and researchers who are seeking effective tools to improve language learning outcomes.</p> Abdullah Al Hejaili Paul Newbury Copyright (c) 2023 Abdullah Al Hejaili, Paul Newbury https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 21 4 353 365 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3043 Exploring Students’ Perceptions on Effective Online Tutoring at a Distance Education Institution https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3131 <p>Online or e-tutoring is a component of e-learning that involves teaching in an online setting where the e-tutor provides support to a small group of students, which can increase confidence, improve topic comprehension and develop critical learning skills. To enhance e-tutoring in the Department of Financial Accounting at the University of South Africa, this study examined student perspectives or evaluations on the effectiveness of e-tutoring in a distance learning environment, as well as the challenges encountered during its implementation. The study adopted a quantitative design where online questionnaires were used as data collecting instruments. A total of 3,837 questionnaires were completed by students who indicated their willingness to participate in the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data. The major findings revealed that e-tutoring has enhanced students’ learning options in financial accounting modules, through the provision of assistance and the promotion of interactive classrooms. The study revealed that students expressed a need for increased training for e-tutors to enhance their abilities in supporting academic goals, while technological challenges such as bad internet and internet cost were identified as significant barriers to successful e-tutoring. Recommendations include promoting e-tutoring in higher education institutions to support students’ academic endeavours, providing regular training for e-tutors to handle technical content and overcome technological challenges, and establishing effective communication channels to facilitate student-tutor interactions. These measures aim to improve teaching and learning in the online environment, fostering a supportive and engaging experience for students.</p> Prince Chukwuneme Enwereji Annelien van Rooyen Alet Terblanche Copyright (c) 2023 Prince Chukwuneme Enwereji, Annelien van Rooyen, Alet Terblanche https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 21 4 366 381 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3131 Investigating the Impact of Technostress on Perceived Hybrid Learning Environment and Academic Performance https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3084 <p>For the betterment of society, education plays a significant role in helping human beings in both tangible and intangible manner. From time to time, various transformations came to the teaching and learning pedagogy. Moreover, it has been evaluated by respective available resources. During and post-COVID-19, we have seen a considerable inclination towards hybrid learning. So, as a researcher, we also need to evaluate whether it has been progressing well. The emergence of different waves of pandemics across the globe has forced higher education institutes to develop and implement new educational models and policies that help to improve the quality of education and learning. However, we also need to examine the impact of these new modalities. For this, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico, has also implemented its novel hybrid educational model, ' HyFlex+Tec,' to continue and uplift academic activities. This model has proposed access to quality education during and post-pandemic crisis and offers the possibility of providing a more environmentally friendly educational model. This study aims to explore the role of technostress in the association between a hybrid learning environment and students' academic performance and to reflect on how this new mode of blended learning could promote 'green-based' learning in an era of climate emergency. For this, we deployed a Form-based online survey among students through the convenient sampling technique. In total, we received 94 registered responses. For statistical analysis of quantitative datasets, we used a free and open statistical application, i.e., Jamovi. After the regression-based examination, it has been noted that technostress fully mediates the relationship between the perceived hybrid learning environment and the academic performance of undergraduate students. The reason for the occurrence of technostress among students is the continuous change in modalities, where the adaptation of new digital tools (software and devices) in a short time affects academic performance, thereby causing a lack of participation in course activities. This research provides guidelines to the university and government policymakers to update or introduce new flexible degree programs (in-person and hybrid) to promote digital skills and the wellbeing of students.</p> Asad Abbas Guillermina Benavides Rincón Liya Wang Mohammad Khubeb Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2023 Asad Abbas, Guillermina Benavides Rincón, Liya Wang, Mohammad Khubeb Siddiqui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 21 4 382 393 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3084 EXaHM – Application Oriented, Digital EXamination System at Hochschule München https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3001 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic put academic institutions around the world in the difficult position of suddenly having to organize many lectures and examinations over online channels only, due to students’ physical access to their campus buildings being restricted. While the search for possible solutions to this problem was often challenging, this situation also offered the unique opportunity to establish remote examination options, that might hold the potential to be continued even after the pandemic has hopefully ended. This report looks at how the Munich University of Applied Sciences (MUAS), one of the biggest universities of applied sciences in Germany, established its own solution for remote examination over the Internet. This report provides an overview of how MUAS developed its on-site competence- and application-oriented digital examination tool to work remotely during the pandemic, its general framework and experiences that were made during its inception. Included are descriptions of the technical setting of the solution, as well as some challenges that were had when implementing it and how those were resolved. As part of this research it was concluded, that support and administrative work for this kind of remote examination was much more intensive than for on-site digital examinations, but also lessened each subsequent semester. A well-organized support system makes it possible to offer remote digital examinations with good conditions regarding, for example, student equal opportunities and secure examination environments, although even now perfect conditions cannot be guaranteed. While not without its own deficiencies, MUAS new established system was lauded by many Bavarian educational facilities and is in the process of being deployed to other Bavarian universities. This paper serves to highlight a qualitative example of how e-learning approaches can be of use in the context of higher education examinations and hopefully provide ideas for others trying to establish their own similar solutions.</p> Hanna Kubrak Mareike Ehlers Kristina Piecha Thomas Walcher Georg Braun Philipp Prade Copyright (c) 2023 Hanna Kubrak, Mareike Ehlers, Kristina Piecha, Thomas Walcher, Georg Braun, Philipp Prade https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 4 328 334 10.34190/ejel.21.4.3001