Electronic Journal of e-Learning https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning (EJEL)</strong> provides pedagogical, learning and educational perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-learning initiatives. EJEL has published regular issues since 2003 and averages between 3 and 4 issues a year.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of both theory and practice in the field of e-learning. The Editorial team consider academically robust papers and welcome empirical research, case studies, action research, theoretical discussions, literature reviews and other work which advances learning in this field. All papers are double-blind peer reviewed.</p> Academic Conferences and Publishing International en-US Electronic Journal of e-Learning 1479-4403 <p><strong>Open Access Publishing</strong></p> <p>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning operates an Open Access Policy. This means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the <em>full texts</em> of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, is that authors control the integrity of their work, which should be properly acknowledged and cited.</p> <p><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This Journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p> An Electronic Collaborative Learning Environment for Standardized Tests https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2167 <p>The National Center for Measurement (Qiyas) was established for the purpose of conducting standardized tests in Saudi Arabia. The center has developed multiple Qiyas tests such as the General Aptitude Test (GAT) and the Scholastic Achievement Admission Test (SAAT).&nbsp; Qiyas tests are used as a pre-requisite requirement for applying to universities and to certain kinds of jobs in Saudi Arabia. Currently, students use traditional methods to prepare for these tests, e.g., studying from books and searching for available learning resources on the internet. These web-based resources are mostly static and only have general guidelines about the tests and a history of available test samples. This research proposes a computer-based collaborative learning (CL) environment that helps support learners during their preparation for the Qiyas tests. A four-stage approach is used in this research: (1) an intensive review of 30 CL platforms is carried out to investigate the available features, (2) two workshops are conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of the features identified in Stage 1 as well as to investigate what other features would be appropriate for Qiyas tests, (3) a CL platform is developed for Qiyas tests for a total of 21 features, (4) and, lastly, the platform is evaluated using two methods, in-depth interviews with experts and an empirical study with instructors and learners. The results show that the platform helps support learners in the participative, cognitive, interactive, and social dimensions of the learning processes. The results also help instructors promote the teaching experience.</p> Sultan Alyahya Asma Aldausari Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-17 2021-05-17 19 3 90 106 10.34190/ejel.19.3.2167 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using e-Learning in University Education: Analyzing Students’ Perspectives https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2168 <p>: The architecture of a learning system implies a heavy task for e-learning to be integrated into a complicated system that is flexible, time scalable, and capable of lasting, even though there are many diverse tools. Currently, higher education in United Arab Emirates is experiencing a major transformation, considering increased accessibility. Therefore, the study aims to identify the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning in university education in United Arab Emirates. A descriptive study design was used to randomly select students from Ajman university, who were enrolled in 2018/2019 academic year. A close-ended structured questionnaire was constructed to collect data from students. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data collected. 81% students stated that e-learning provides scientific material in an interesting way. Similarly, 80% students have responded that e-learning increases the possibility of contact between students among themselves and between the students and the teacher. 73% students indicated that due to increasing social isolation, they spend more time in front of the technical means of social interaction account and face-to-face with others. 70% students have indicated that there is a presence of electronic illiteracy among parents, which reduces their ability to follow their children electronically. It is essential for potential e-learners to understand the differences between an e-learning classroom setting and a conventional classroom setting as there are both advantages and disadvantages of e-learning to both environments that can probably influence their overall performance as a student.</p> Alaa Zuhir Al Rawashdeh Enaam Youssef Mohammed Asma Rebhi Al Arab Mahmoud Alara Butheyna Al-Rawashdeh Butheyna Al-Rawashdeh Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-17 2021-05-17 19 3 107 117 10.34190/ejel.19.3.2168 Pathways to a Knowledge Society: A Proposal for a Hierarchical Model for Measuring Digital Literacy Among Israeli pre-service Teachers https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2217 <p>This paper presents the results of an empirical study on validation of performance statements for an inventory of the digital literacy skills required for learning. These skills are used to determine digital readiness of pre-service teachers. The paper reports on validation of an adjusted set of 54 performance statements which were categorized into seven digital learning domains. The seven digital learning domains were validated based on structural equation modelling which was then confirmed by factor analysis using AMOS software. The results of the analysis indicate the existence of a multi-layered model where all digital learning domains are positively connected to each other. Our findings therefore suggest a strong statistical validity of the performance statement inventory. The findings also point to the fact that pre-service teachers are in a transit phase from digital immigrants to digital natives. That, in the context of Covid-19 pandemic, implies the need to invest in appropriate preparation and training of pre-service teachers to teach in an online environment. &nbsp;The inventory for measuring digital literacy can be used to assess teachers’ digital readiness on a regular basis, thereby enabling them to adjust the teaching materials and pedagogy to achieve the required level of digital readiness, as defined by the school.</p> Yehuda Peled Gila Kurtz Orit Avidov-Ungar Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-17 2021-05-17 19 3 pp118 132 Moodle and Problem-Based Learning: Pedagogical Designs and Contradictions in the Activity System https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2218 <p>This paper presents an empirical study and related activity system analysis regarding the implementation and use of Moodle specifically, and learning management systems in general, in problem-based learning. The research involved an exploration of the characteristics that defined use of Moodle at a Danish university, the reasons why Moodle was or was not used in specific contexts and the way in which Moodle use was perceived by students. Some of the obstacles and challenges identified through this study highlighted the need for a deeper analysis of the elements that characterised the activity system(s) and their contradictions in this contextual setting, leading to a consideration of possible implications for change processes. The investigation consisted of a literature review, a survey of 345 students regarding their experiences with Moodle in conjunction with a nomination for the best Moodle course, an analysis of the 178 nominated courses and interviews with four university teachers about their use of Moodle. This examination revealed that many existing Moodle activities at Aalborg University focus more on sharing information and teaching materials and less on the students’ problem-based learning activities and projects. This finding is intriguing, as use of Moodle does not reflect that problem-based learning comprises the pedagogical foundation of Aalborg University’s academic programme. The investigation uncovered several reasons for the lack of focus on problem-based learning in Moodle structures and content and explored them through the contradictions identified within the activity systems and between the double contextual frame surrounding the interacting activity system.</p> Rikke Ørngreen Sara Paasch Knudsen Ditte Kolbæk Rune Hagel Skaarup Jensen Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-17 2021-05-17 19 3 pp133 146