Electronic Journal of e-Learning https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning (EJEL)</strong> provides pedagogical, learning and educational perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-learning initiatives. EJEL has published regular issues since 2003 and averages between 5 and 6 issues a year.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of both theory and practice in the field of e-learning. The Editorial team consider academically robust papers and welcome empirical research, case studies, action research, theoretical discussions, literature reviews and other work which advances learning in this field. All papers are double-blind peer reviewed.</p> Academic Publishing International en-US Electronic Journal of e-Learning 1479-4403 <p><strong>Open Access Publishing</strong></p> <p>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning operates an Open Access Policy. This means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the <em>full texts</em> of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, is that authors control the integrity of their work, which should be properly acknowledged and cited.</p> Harnessing AI for Education 4.0: Drivers of Personalized Learning https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3467 <p>Personalized learning, a pedagogical approach tailored to individual needs and capacities, has garnered considerable attention in the era of artificial intelligence (AI) and the fourth industrial revolution. This systematic literature review aims to identify key drivers of personalized learning and critically assess the role of AI in reinforcing these drivers. Following PRISMA guidelines, a thorough search was conducted across major peer-reviewed journal databases, resulting in the inclusion of 102 relevant studies published between 2013 and 2022. A combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses, employing categorization and frequency analysis techniques, was performed to discern patterns and insights from the literature. The findings of this review highlight several critical drivers that contribute to the effectiveness of personalized learning, both from a broad view of education and in the specific context of e-learning. Firstly, recognizing and accounting for individual student characteristics is foundational to tailoring educational experiences. Secondly, personalizing content delivery and instructional methods ensures that learning materials resonate with learners' preferences and aptitudes. Thirdly, customizing assessment and feedback mechanisms enables educators to provide timely and relevant guidance to learners. Additionally, tailoring user interfaces and learning environments fosters engagement and accessibility, catering to diverse learning styles and needs. Moreover, the integration of AI presents significant opportunities to enhance personalized learning. AI-driven solutions offer capabilities such as automated learner profiling, adaptive content recommendation, real-time assessment, and the development of intelligent user interfaces, thereby augmenting the personalization of learning experiences. However, the successful adoption of AI in personalized learning requires addressing various challenges, including the need to develop educators' competencies, refine theoretical frameworks, and navigate ethical considerations surrounding data privacy and bias. By providing a comprehensive understanding of the drivers and implications of AI-driven personalized learning, this review offers valuable insights for educators, researchers, and policymakers in the Education 4.0 era. Leveraging the transformative potential of AI while upholding robust pedagogical principles, personalized learning holds the promise of unlocking tailored educational experiences that maximize individual potential and relevance in the digital economy.</p> Gina Paola Barrera Castro Andrés Chiappe Diego Fernando Becerra Rodriguez Felipe Gonzalo Sepulveda Copyright (c) 2024 Gina Paola Barrera Castro, Andrés Chiappe, Diego Fernando Becerra Rodriguez, Felipe Gonzalo Sepulveda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-25 2024-04-25 22 5 01 14 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3467 Exploring the Characteristics and Attitudes of Electronic Textbook Users and Nonusers https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3203 <p>A technological trend influencing society is the provision and adoption of digital books. Digital books are used in education in the form of electronic textbooks (e-textbooks). The research question examined in this manuscript is which students’ characteristics and attitudes influence their adoption or non-adoption of e-textbooks? The study explores these characteristics and attitudes of students who have made the decision to become either an e-textbook user or nonuser. The empirical analysis is conducted using 1191 student responses to a questionnaire distributed in a mid-sized university in the western United States. Among these 1191 responses, 530 of the students had used an e-textbook and 661 had not used an e-textbook. The e-textbook user and nonuser groups are studied in three different ways. The first is by examining the counts and percentages for five respondent characteristics. The second way is through statistical tests (i.e., t-tests and multiple analysis of variance) on these characteristics across the groups. The results from these analyses did not identify any meaningful differences in characteristics across the user and nonuser groups. The third way was a content analysis performed on an open-ended question (i.e., What factors influenced you on whether to use an e-textbook?) on the questionnaire. The student e-textbook attitudes discovered from the content analysis showed that for e-textbook users, the cost or price of an e-textbook had a significant influence on e-textbook adoption. Two other attitudes influencing e-textbook users’ adoption were usability, both positive and negative. The key attitude of nonusers regarding e-textbook adoption is negative e-textbook usability.</p> Tracey A. Anderson Lori Baker-Eveleth Robert W. Stone Copyright (c) 2024 Tracey Anderson, Lori Baker-Eveleth, Bob Stone https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-01 2024-05-01 22 5 15 25 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3203 A Robust Examination of Cheating on Unproctored Online Exams https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3173 <p>The rapid growth of online education, especially since the pandemic, is presenting educators with numerous challenges. Chief among these is concern about academic dishonesty, especially on unproctored online exams. Students cheating on exams is not a new phenomenon. The topic has been discussed and debated within institutions of higher learning, and significant levels of cheating have been reported in the academic literature for over sixty years. Much of this literature, however, has focused on student behavior in a classroom utilizing proctored, in-class exams. Grades on exams usually determine most of a student’s final grade in a course, and GPAs are used by employers and graduate schools to indicate a student’s subject matter mastery. As more conventional colleges and universities expand their online course offerings it is natural to wonder if academic dishonesty is more prevalent in online classes than in face-to-face classes. In particular, are students more likely to cheat when no one is watching (i.e., on unproctored assessment assignments) than they do when someone is watching (i.e., on proctored assessment assignments)? The purpose of this study is to investigate whether students cheat more on unproctored online exams than they do on proctored in-classroom exams, and if so, is there any pattern to their cheating behavior. Our findings are derived from careful empirical analysis of 741 undergraduate students who completed three unproctored online exams, several collaboration-encouraged assignments, and a proctored in-class comprehensive final exam in the same course with the same instructor. Additionally, we collected demographic and human capital data for every student. Using bivariate and regression analysis, we find significant evidence of more cheating on unproctored online exams than on proctored in-class exams even though students were given stern honor code violation warnings. Moreover, we discover that student cheating increased with each unproctored online exam, implying that students learn how to cheat as they become more familiar with taking online assessment assignments. Finally, we find that students with certain demographic and human capital characteristics tend to cheat more than others. This research strongly supports the use of proctoring for all evaluation assignments in online classes to ensure that grades in these classes properly reflect student aptitude as opposed to merely reflecting their ability to cheat.</p> Richard Fendler David Beard Jonathan Godbey Copyright (c) 2024 Richard Fendler, David Beard, Jonathan Godbey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 22 5 26 38 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3173 Exploring the Impact of Online Teaching Environment on EFL Teachers’ Professional Identity https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3280 <p>The impact of COVID-19 on the higher education sector has extended beyond using alternative technological methods. It has also influenced the professional identities of instructors themselves. This study aims to investigate EFL instructors’ perceptions of the impact of online teaching on identity transformation during the COVID-19 lockdown. It also investigates how online teaching has affected teachers’ professional identity in relevant aspects. The study was conducted during the first academic semester of 2022/ 2023. The researchers adopted a mixed research methodology that involved both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. A questionnaire was distributed to (44) EFL instructors, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with (8) EFL instructors at the Department of Languages and Translation at a Palestinian University, Palestine. Appropriate quantitative and qualitative analyses were utilized to figure out participants’ responses to the questionnaire and the interviews. The results of the survey revealed that online teaching positively influenced instructors’ social relations with their colleagues and students, enhanced the teaching process, and promoted instructors’ self-esteem. As for the interviews, the findings showed the substantial impact of online teaching on EFL instructors’ identity in terms of their professional needs, self-awareness and self-esteem, relationships with learners, relationships with colleagues, and their perspectives towards their institution. Hence, some recommendations were suggested.</p> Haya Fayyad Abuhussein Amjad Badah Copyright (c) 2024 Haya Fayyad Abuhussein, Amjad Badah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-16 2024-05-16 22 5 39 52 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3280 The Impact of the Online Learning Readiness Self-Check Survey with Australian Tertiary Enabling Students https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3238 <p>This study reports on two key aspects relating to the use of the Online Learning Readiness Self-Check (OLRSC) survey, which has been proposed as identifying non-traditional students’ readiness for online learning, and their strengths and weaknesses in six key areas. The first aspect validates the use of the instrument based on data from 199 students engaged in an online tertiary enabling course at a regional university in Australia. Factor analysis verified the scale structure of the instrument; however, two items were removed prior to the final analysis due to low communality and/or high cross loading with other items. This is followed by an examination of whether the instrument might be useful for the early identification of students who are at risk of disengagement from the enabling program. While it was hypothesised that the instrument, which measured factors such as the quality of interaction with peers and instructors, their capacity to manage technology and how well they managed learning, should have been a useful tool to identify early disengagement, the hypothesis was not supported. No significant associations were identified between any of the instrument’s scales and early withdrawal from the course or completion of the first unit of study. Future recommendations for educators are made with a view to improving student engagement.</p> Robert Whannell Mitchell Parkes Tim Bartlett-Taylor Ingrid Harrington Copyright (c) 2024 Robert Whannell, Mitchell Parkes, Tim Bartlett-Taylor, Ingrid Harrington https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 22 5 53 59 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3238 A Strategy Development Framework for Educational Technology: An integrated Design Science Research and Modified Delphi Approach https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3568 <p>Emerging technologies are transforming educational practices, but successful integration requires improving the quality and efficiency of learning. New technology emerges in hype cycles but adoption and performance lag over time. A strategy development framework is needed for decision-makers to understand the complex interaction of all the factors to consider when making new technology investments. The research explores how strategy development occurs through the dynamic interaction of strategy with learning, and technology integration. It analyses the key elements of a strategy map for learning with technology and how they influence each other within the overall strategy map. The research design integrated the different cycles of Design Science Research (DSR) with a modified Delphi Technique in two phases of research. During the first research phase, Delphi panel members were interviewed to understand current challenges and practices in learning with technology. The results of the literature review and thematic data analysis from the interviews were used to create a hypothetical strategy map and a strategy development framework, as an artefact, as part of the DSR process. This framework was shared with Delphi members in the second phase of research, and they were requested to evaluate the framework for its fit and utility in similar contexts of learning with technology. The feedback contributed to the refinement of the artefact and highlighted the key operational focus areas for learning with technology. The key operational focus areas identified were the need to increase the basic technology literacy of students and educators, continuous professional development in terms of online pedagogy, and the need for principles in terms of multimedia design. Other focus areas were an online design blueprint and an improvement in learning and teaching experiences through efficiencies and productivity of ed-tech technologies. This study contributes a strategy development framework for educational technology which enhances theories around the analytical and conceptual processes when planning and implementing new emerging technologies in learning. Analytical processes include external and internal analysis and a SWOT analysis of aspects related to learning with technology. Other key outcomes of the study include a hypothetical strategy map for learning with technology which aligns business objectives to a financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspective.</p> Jorietha Hugo Ronel Callaghan Johannes Cronje Copyright (c) 2024 Jorietha Hugo, Ronel Callaghan, Johannes Cronje https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-06-20 2024-06-20 22 5 60 75 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3568 EJEL Editorial 2024: The Allure of AI in Education https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/3629 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The objectives of this editorial are to provide a brief overview of the themes of EJEL papers published in 2023, compare these themes with the areas of work suggested in the previous Editorial (Charbonneau-Gowdy, et al., 2023), and propose new areas of focus for future research. The present Editorial will primarily concentrate on the main challenges arising from the release and use of GPT-3 and GPT-4 in 2023.</p> Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy Marija Cubric Ronald Dyer Alessandro Pagano Katya Pechenkina Heinrich Söbke Pia Spangenberger Copyright (c) 2024 Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy, Marija Cubric, Roland Dyer, Alessandro Pagano, Katya Pechenkina, Heinrich Söbke, Pia Spangenberger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 22 5 00 00 10.34190/ejel.22.5.3629