Electronic Journal of e-Learning https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning (EJEL)</strong> provides pedagogical, learning and educational perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-learning initiatives. EJEL has published regular issues since 2003 and averages between 3 and 4 issues a year.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of both theory and practice in the field of e-learning. The Editorial team consider academically robust papers and welcome empirical research, case studies, action research, theoretical discussions, literature reviews and other work which advances learning in this field. All papers are double-blind peer reviewed.</p> en-US <p><strong>Open Access Publishing</strong></p> <p>The Electronic Journal of e-Learning operates an Open Access Policy. This means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the <em>full texts</em> of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, is that authors control the integrity of their work, which should be properly acknowledged and cited.</p> Karen.Harris@academic-publishing.org (Karen Harris) sue@academic-conferences.org (Sue Nugus) Fri, 25 Mar 2022 16:32:58 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Role of Training and Support in the Implementation of Electronic Textbooks in Gauteng Public Schools https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2320 <p>The Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) is responsible for managing and administering public and registered private educational institutions within this South African province. The GDE has introduced a Paperless Classroom project where prioritised schools are provided with smartboards, laptops and tablets to teachers and learners in targeted grades. This study aims to add to the corpus of knowledge on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education by establishing whether schools in Gauteng are ready to adopt and implement electronic textbooks in their classrooms in terms of support and training. The focus of this study is on the training and support, as the GDE received an influx of requests from these teachers on receiving additional training and better support shortly after receiving the ICTs. The study followed a pragmatic approach using a parallel concurrent mixed-method design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected using an online questionnaire and an interview protocol. Purposively sampling was used to collect quantitative data and 55 responses were received, whereas both purposive and convenience sampling were used to collect qualitative data and 20 participants were interviewed. The study used the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework through which the study was conducted. The Perceived Usefulness construct focused on the usefulness of electronic textbooks, while the Perceived Ease of Use and the External Factors are constructs facilitating and enabling the use of electronic textbooks. Quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed. Most respondents were not satisfied with the training they received. It was entry-level basic training and did not help schools use ICTs and address the technical glitches they experienced pedagogically. The quality of the devices was not up to standard. The e-textbooks had licensing issues, and only a limited number were available. Although technical support was provided, it was not adequate. Many systemic issues such as maintenance and replacement plans of the devices, safety, update, and the licensing of the electronic textbooks should still be addressed for successful implementation. The results of the study may offer some insights before the roll-out of electronic textbooks is done to the whole province. Furthermore, the study may also provide clues to the South African provinces that may envisage introducing ICT in education. Within the nine provinces in South Africa and in the education community worldwide, the information provided by this study can be of great significance for the envisaged training and the support needs of the schools on the use of ICTs in education.</p> Michack Mandla Masango , Linda van Ryneveld , Marien Graham Copyright (c) 2022 Michack Mandla Masango , Linda van Ryneveld , Marien Graham https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2320 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Acceptance of Serious Games to Develop Digital Competencies in Higher Education Professors https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2181 <p>Serious games are the focus of the current research agenda. They show promise for allowing students to learn and practice skills. In fewer studies, they are used for the development of academic competencies. Therefore, it is of interest to deepen the research on the benefits of serious games in academic education and training. This article presents a study using serious games aimed at higher education academics’ training for the development of digital competencies. The study was carried out with 56 academics, using the serious game called AstroCódigo. The study analyzed the level of acceptance of serious games using the TAM model and what factors the academics believe affect this acceptance. It is important to know possible barriers that affect the development of actions oriented to the formation of academic competencies through serious games, which can also affect the adoption of games as a resource for teaching situations. None of prior studies have focused on analyzing the technological acceptance of serious games used for the development of academic competencies. The results of this research indicate that participants believe that using serious games can be beneficial to drive digital competencies. However, there are aspects such as the highest academic qualification, work experience, professional development, perceived usefulness, ease of use, and fear of change associated with age rank which can play a negative role in the use and acceptance of digital technologies by academics, particularly serious games. These results may be a clue to the barriers linked to the fact that most of the participants in this study do not use serious games in their classes or for their digital skills training. Additionally, the possibility to try and fail and the increased level of challenges proposed in the serious games, related to enjoyment, were valued by academics, during the sessions with AstroCódigo. These findings open the door to organize strategies for academic training in digital competencies within higher education institutions. They can also impact the design decisions of new serious games.</p> Dr. Juan Carlos Sandí-Delgado, Dra. Cecilia Sanz, Mag. Edith Lovos Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Juan Carlos Sandí-Delgado, Dra. Cecilia Sanz, Mag. Edith Lovos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2181 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Rapid Adoption of Online Assessment on Students’ Performance and Perceptions: Evidence from a Distance Learning University https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2399 <p>One of the most sensitive changes faced by universities due to the COVID-19 crisis was the remote assessment of student learning. This research analysed the case of a massive distance learning university that rapidly changed the final assessment (<em>N</em>=126,653 undergraduate students in 2020) from face-to-face exams to entirely online exams. The research focused on the influence of online assessment on academic performance and students’ perception of the new method. Two data sources were used: the contrast of academic performance indicators (assessment, success and achievement rates, and average marks obtained) between the online examination call and the previous ones with face-to-face examinations; and a questionnaire to a sample of students (<em>n</em>=714) on their perception of the online assessment experience. The results show that all the academic performance indicators in the 28 Bachelor Degrees offered at the university increased when the final assessment method turned to online due to the pandemic crisis; and that a majority of students are more favourable to online assessment methods. The discussion places these findings in a context of rapid change, and concludes by identifying the possible implications of online assessment for student retention, organisational challenges, as well as possible further studies. </p> Daniel Dominguez Figaredo, Ines Gil Jaurena, Javier Morentin Encina Copyright (c) 2022 Daniel Dominguez Figaredo, Ines Gil Jaurena, Javier Morentin Encina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2399 Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Distance Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Experience of Ukraine's Higher Education System https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2198 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has created a new paradigm of ‘life in social distancing’, which in its turn has had a massive impact on education. Continuing education delivery through alternative channels of instruction became a top priority for education institutions aiming to minimize impacts of the pandemic on education. Most universities shifted from conventional, on campus, face-to-face instruction to online distance teaching and learning, which meant that teaching approaches, tools of assessments, and ways of teacher-student communication had to be modified to meet challenges of the altered mode of instruction. Since the pandemic wake, various global educational organizations have carried out studies to identify threats and potential opportunities for higher education within and beyond the pandemic. Some attempts to analyze the experience of the Ukrainian higher education system transition to mass distance instruction have also been made. However, these researches were limited by a territorial or time span, sectoral analysis, or focus on specific issues. Lack of comprehensive cross-sectoral nationwide research regarding perceptions of main actors of Ukraine’s higher education system (teachers and students) on outcomes of this abrupt transition inspired the current research. In this regard, we saw the objective of the study in exploring the experience of mass distance learning application in Ukraine’s higher education system due to COVID-19 and identifying considerations for e-learning in the national system of higher education within and beyond the pandemic. The research was done via survey. The order of the researchers' actions was as follows: questionnaire compilation, data collection, data analysis, and knowledge generation. In this study, a closed-format questionnaire containing questions with pre-offered answers (multiple choices) was the main research instrument. The questionnaire was distributed to Ukrainian university teachers and students by snowball sampling. Data analysis phase involved analyzing the quantitative datasets. The interpretation of the analyzed information led to the generation of knowledge. 882 responses from 65 Ukrainian higher education institutions were received. The survey data showed that mass transition to distance learning became a challenge for majority Ukrainian universities: only 45.5% of the respondents reported experiences with teaching/learning online before the pandemic; 59.4% of them indicated limited (permanent or occasional) access to technological resources (stable and sustainable Internet, properly equipped workplace, software/hardware means). Nonetheless, the survey results confirmed that both teachers and students were satisfied with the rapid transition to distance learning due to COVID-19, although students proved more flexible in adapting to the new mode of instruction. Majority of the respondents indicated such online educational platforms as Zoom (88.3%) and Google Classroom (85.3%) as the most widespread in the Ukrainian virtual educational environment; and such educational technologies as collaborative (56.6%) and individualized learning (55.9%) as the most efficient in distance learning. The research advances the e-learning knowledge area providing data regarding the experiences of Ukraine's national higher education system on mass and abrupt transition to distance learning and envisaging potential for this mode of instruction beyond the pandemic.</p> Svetlana Grynyuk, O. Kovtun, L. Sultanova, M. Zheludenko, A. Zasluzhena, I. Zaytseva Copyright (c) 2022 Svetlana Grynyuk, O. Kovtun, L. Sultanova, M. Zheludenko, A. Zasluzhena, I. Zaytseva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2198 Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 This is not (the New) Normal. Students' Attitudes Towards Studying During the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Determinants of Academic Overload https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2366 <p>The measures taken to combat the pandemic COVID -19 suddenly changed the way of studying in many countries around the world. Because of the abrupt change, faculties did not have time to develop strategies for implementing online study, so faculty were busy finding new ways to teach their courses. As it turned out, many of them were not prepared for such a change. They lacked the technical understanding of how to use online tools and platforms, as well as the pedagogical knowledge of the dynamics of online teaching. In this paper we discuss how students from the Faculty of Arts at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, experienced the changes in the way they study. We conducted an anonymous online survey among 1,827 students from the largest faculty at the University of Ljubljana. The survey took place in February and March 2021. The results show that there were differences between students in their assessment of the appropriateness of different teaching approaches regarding various factors, which highlights the conditions students had at home to study. The conditions at home affected students' attitudes towards distance learning, their assessment of competence for distance learning, as well as their motivation to study and their sense of being overwhelmed. Thus, more study difficulties, negative attitudes and motivation problems were observed among students who were not provided with adequate study conditions. Nevertheless, the results of the study show that distance learning also has potential, but this potential can only be realised if all those involved in the process are provided with the right conditions. We conclude the study with four main recommendations, namely that the quality of distance learning requires (1) adequate conditions for students to participate in distance learning; (2) an appropriate choice of teaching methods is important; (3) teachers need to be didactically trained for distance learning; and (4) during distance learning, cooperation between the teacher and the students and between the students themselves should be encouraged.</p> Marko Radovan, Danijela Makovec Copyright (c) 2022 Marko Radovan, Danijela Makovec https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2366 Mon, 28 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Relocating Online a Technology-Enhanced Microteaching Practice in Teacher Education: Challenges and Implications https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2180 <p>The rich repertoire of online practices adopted by educators during the Covid-19 pandemic opened up new perspectives for educational research to consider e-learning post-pandemic. Focusing on teacher education, it is worth considering the practices adopted to inform the development of future curricula that cultivate teaching competencies for e-learning. This paper examines microteaching, a well-established practice realised in teacher education as a learning-to-teach experience. As was the case with other teacher education practices, the forced online transition heavily compromised the vividness of microteaching -a technique inherently connected to face-to-face interaction-. On the other hand, this online relocation can be an opportunity to capitalise on online microteaching as a fulfilling e-learning experience in teacher education. The paper has two parts. In the first part, we conceptualise the potential of microteaching while applying Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL). The second part reports our experience relocating online a mature technology-enhanced microteaching practice (successfully implemented in face-to-face settings for seven years) due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Our research design utilises two implementations of microteaching practice. One was conducted in a typical face-to-face context pre-pandemic, and another was conducted in an online context during a lockdown imposed by the pandemic. On a first level, collecting qualitative data from both contexts allowed us to observe common TEL-related challenges. On a second level, we focused on identifying challenges distinct at the online context to infer and highlight the implications of the online relocation. These implications relate to (i) the organisational changes, as experienced from the instructor’s perspective, (ii) the technologies adopted for applying TEL, and (iii) the challenges that pre-service teachers (PSTs) face in the online environment. Our findings extend the previous research scope on face-to-face microteaching practice. New challenges of relocating technology-enhanced microteaching online include technical difficulties in handling technologies and reduced participation in whole-class discussions. However, challenges that remain relatively unaffected concerning the typical face-to-face practice are (i) the PSTs immersion in the roleplaying character of microteaching, (ii) the misconceptions on the principles and methods of teaching techniques roleplayed, (iii) the adoption of digital tools for applying TEL, (iv) the selection of suitable digital tools, and (v) the burden of time limitation. In conclusion, we argue that these insights reveal an unexplored potential for technology-enhanced microteaching in an online context. We discuss how the implications of shifting microteaching practise online may model future microteaching implementations in teacher education post-pandemic. We support that online microteaching, apart from providing an alternative method when circumstances impose it, should be integrated within the typical teacher education curriculum to cultivate teaching competencies for e-learning.</p> Eleni Zalavra, Katerina Makri Copyright (c) 2022 Eleni Zalavra, Katerina Makri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2180 Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Predicting Analysis of Academic Staff’s Motivation to Teach Online in a Nigerian University https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2123 <p>This study examined the predictors of academic staff motivation for online teaching in a Nigerian University. Theory of Planned Behaviour served as the conceptual foundation for the study. A survey design was adopted and a total of one hundred and nine-five (195) academic staff participated in the study from a university that was purposefully chosen for the study. A questionnaire tagged ‘Academic Staff’s Motivation for Online Teaching Survey (SMOTS)’ adapted from Chi (2015) was used for data collection. The questionnaire consisted of six domains - demographics, online teaching consideration, perception of online teaching, motivation for online teaching concerning resources, motivation for online teaching with respect to external factors and general motivation to teach online. Data were analyzed using percentages and frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation, multiple regression analysis, Pearson Correlation, T-test, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). Results of the study revealed that the perception of online teaching and academic staff’s motivation for online teaching regarding external factors had a positive significant contribution to the general motivation of academic staff to teach online. Also, age was found to have a significant influence on academic staff’s motivation to teach online indicators (perception of teaching online, motivation to teach online regarding resources, and motivation to teach online regarding external factors). Hence, it was concluded that adequate consideration must be given to these identified contributing factors to motivation for online teaching among academic staff by those who design and implement online teaching initiatives in the university to sustain academic staff’s interest in online teaching over time. Equally, policy decisions on online teaching in the university should be based on clear objectives for the generality of the academic staff irrespective of age, gender, marital status, and faculty rank.</p> Sunday Abidemi Itasanmi, Violet Oyo Ekpenyong, Morakinyo Akintolu, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani Copyright (c) 2022 Sunday Abidemi Itasanmi, Violet Oyo Ekpenyong, Morakinyo Akintolu, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2123 Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 WhatsApp as a tool for Building a Learning Community https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2286 <p>WhatsApp groups are considered useful for creating and supporting virtual communities. This mixed method case study explores the patterns that emerged when we used WhatsApp to create a community of learning during the multimodal presentation of a postgraduate course in research proposal writing. Three questions drive the study: (1) What kinds of messages were sent? (2) Who participated and how? (3) How did the learners experience the use of WhatsApp in support of the community of learning? Data were collected during the presentation of a five-evening proposal writing workshop that was conducted using Zoom, WhatsApp, and YouTube as communication platforms. To answer the first question, all WhatsApp messages were analysed through both manual (individual) and automated (meta) content analysis. The third question was answered by analysing students’ responses to the end-of session online questionnaire that was administered via Google Forms. Results indicate that many messages were administrative in nature, while the most notable academic messages concerned a discussion of empirical research, research paradigms, and research design. The presenter and co-presenter together accounted for almost half of the messages sent, and the other messages were evenly distributed between members of the class, with five notably vocal students. Student responses indicated that they liked the high level of interactivity and the content, but that they disliked the time it took to form groups. The paper contributes to the literature by showing how this use of multiple WhatsApp groups was effective in creating a sense of community by facilitating access, relationships, vision, and function (West and Williams, 2017). More research is needed in determining the extent to which students might support one another with conversations outside of the main WhatsApp group.</p> Johannes Cronje, Izak Copyright (c) 2022 Johannes Cronje, Izak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2286 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 College Students’ Preferences on Principles for the Effective Instructional Video Design for Online General English Classes in Korea https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2336 <p>The present study investigates the preferences of students regarding the principles for the effective design of instructional videos to identify factors that influence engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 232 students enrolled in online liberal arts classes at a private university in South Korea. Frequency analysis was conducted to determine preferences, whereas an independent sample <em>t</em>-test and one-way analysis of variance were administered to verify any differences in preferences according to gender and grade. The findings are as follows. First, out of the 12 principles that should be considered in the design of instructional videos, the students most preferred the review quiz principle. Moreover, this factor was found to exert the greatest influence on engagement. Second, incorporating real-life situation principles into instructional videos also had a significant impact on engagement. Third, female students expressed higher levels of preference than did male students in terms of the preview, course content on screen, and review quiz principles. Fourth, sophomores preferred the review quiz principle more than the freshmen did. The results of the present study are in line with those of previous research in that the effective instructional design of multimedia lessons requires reducing extraneous processing, managing essential processing, and fostering generative processing. Particularly, the study found that Korean students value video lectures with generative activities for meaningful learning. Based on the findings of the study, pedagogical considerations of the design of recorded lectures and its structure for active engagement, and suggestions for future studies are provided.</p> Ji-Young Seo Copyright (c) 2022 Ji-Young Seo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2336 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of an Instructor's Personalized Email Intervention on Completion Rates in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2376 <p>Although Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are increasing in popularity, they have been subject to criticism due to the high dropout rate. This study examined the impact of an instructor's personalized email intervention on the rate of completion of a nine week course, which included seven weekly quizzes, and the rate of completion of the final exam. The participants, who took an Israeli noncredit academic MOOC on negotiation management, were randomly assigned to two groups. Treatment group participants (N = 576) who did not complete the weekly quiz received a tailored reminder by email from their instructor encouraging them to complete the quiz and offering them assistance in order to deal with the past week’s contents. The control group (N = 608) that did not complete the weekly quiz did not get any emails from the instructor. The impact of the intervention was measured in three different ways: the immediate-impact, the delayed-impact and a cumulative impact. The increase in quiz completion within a week after the instructor's email was defined as an immediate-impact. The increase in the completion of the next quiz was defined as a delayed impact. The increase in the final exam completion rates was defined as a cumulative impact. The results show that the weekly intervention had an immediate impact as well as a cumulative impact on the final exam completion rate. The results suggest that an instructor's acknowledgement and interest might increase learners' commitment to learning in a MOOC. This study aimed to gain insight into learners' propensity to stay active in a MOOC and to increase completion rates. Findings of this study can be useful to MOOC designers and instructors to design and facilitate more effective MOOCs for learners by using email interventions to prevent students from dropping out of courses.</p> Gila Kurtz, Orna Kopolovich, Elad Segev, Limor Sahar-Inbar, Lilach Gal, Ronen HAmmer Copyright (c) 2022 Gila Kurtz, Orna Kopolovich, Elad Segev, Limor Sahar-Inbar, Lilach Gal, Ronen HAmmer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejel/article/view/2376 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000