Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm <p><strong>The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management (EJKM)</strong><strong> </strong>publishes research on topics relevant to the study and implementation of knowledge management, intellectual capital, intangible resources and related fields of study.<br /><br />The journal contributes to the development of theory, practice and policy in the field of knowledge management, intellectual capital and intangible resources. The journal accepts academically robust papers, topical articles, essays, book reviews and case studies that contribute to developing knowledge management, intellectual capital and intangible resources research and practice. All papers are double blind reviewed.</p> Academic Conferences and Publishing International en-US Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management 1479-4411 <p><strong>Open Access Publishing</strong></p> <p>The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Maangement operates an Open Access Policy. This means that users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the <em>full texts</em> of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, is that authors control the integrity of their work, which should be properly acknowledged and cited.</p> <p><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This Journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Knowledge Translation in the Healthcare Sector. A Structured Literature Review https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/1155 Knowledge translation can be understood as the ability to translate concepts between different contexts by stakeholders who have different skills, aims, and even feelings in their relation to such concepts. Knowledge translation tools allow for the effective transfer of existing knowledge as well as the emergence of new knowledge of value to some or all of the stakeholders involved in the process. Knowledge translation is particularly challenging in healthcare and medicine, where different practitioners (e.g. physicians, biologists, engineers, researchers) and professionals need methodologies and tools to communicate and share knowledge among them and with patients in an effective manner. To better understand this phenomenon, we conducted a Structured Literature Review (SLR). The concepts knowledge, translation and either healthcare or medicine were used as search terms in the title, abstract or keywords on Scopus, which highlighted more than 2,000 contributions in the medical literature and only 22 in Business and Management. Our review of these documents revealed a need in the healthcare sector for better managerial and organisational practices to cope with the various challenges related to the sharing of knowledge among stakeholders. At the same time, the business and management communities appear to have made significant progress in addressing the same issues. We therefore decided to concentrate our analysis on the works published by the business and management community as a mean to highlight future research directions for the healthcare management sector. Thus, our research identifies areas of relevance which are currently underdeveloped, provides insights on both theoretical and empirical developments and offers a critique of the approaches, research frameworks and methods used, as well as emerging trends in these domains. Despite a lack of an agreed definition of the term Knowledge Translation, our findings highlight a growing interest in the topic, with most of the contributions published after 2015. Scholars have approached the term from a variety of perspectives depending on the nature of the stakeholders of relevance to their studies. Whilst there does not seem to be a predominant framework, the literature reveals several tools and techniques that are effective in enhancing Knowledge Translation in different contexts. New research opportunities in this domain emerge in terms of underinvestigated areas within the healthcare sector. Francesca Dal Mas Alexeis Garcia-Perez Maria José Sousa Renato Lopes da Costa Lorenzo Cobianchi Copyright (c) 2020 Copyright © 2003-2021 Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp198‑211 pp198‑211 10.34190/EJKM.18.03.001 Knowledge Translation in Oncology. A Case Study https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/1156 Knowledge translation (KT) is the ability to make knowledge accessible to different stakeholders by translating it into various contexts. Translating knowledge is particularly crucial in the healthcare sector, which is currently under significant pressure due to technological innovation, increasing demand of services by an ageing population, budget reductions, and new organisational challenges posed by the latest events like the COVID‑19 pandemic. While the first definition of KT was focused on the translation of scientific research into clinical practice, other types of KT later emerged. In healthcare, while stakeholders have different skills and competencies (such as clinical scientists versus physicians or other healthcare professionals), others experience diverse emotional feelings (like the patients or their families). An effective KT allows the transfer, sharing, and creation of new knowledge, enhancing innovation and co‑production dynamics. The paper employs a case study by analysing the Breast Unit of the C.R.O. National Cancer Institue of Aviano, Italy, one of the most acknowledged hospitals and research centres in Europe in the field of cancer surgery and treatments. The paper aims at studying the knowledge translation dynamics and tools by analysing the various relationships with the internal as well as the external stakeholders of the Breast Unit. Internally, knowledge translation is needed to merge the competencies of highly skilled multidisciplinary teams, which include surgeons and physicians with various specialities, researchers, psychologists, nurses and other healthcare professionals. Externally, knowledge is translated to meet the needs of patients, patients' associations, sponsors, citizens, and policymakers. Results highlight how different techniques and dynamics allow KT to happen within internal as well as external groups. Contributing to the knowledge management and knowledge translation theories, our findings open up to practical as well as research implications. Francesca Dal Mas Helena Biancuzzi Maurizio Massaro Amelia Barcellini Lorenzo Cobianchi Luca Miceli Copyright (c) 2020 Copyright © 2003-2021 Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp212‑223 pp212‑223 10.34190/EJKM.18.03.002 Detrivialization as a Strategy to Challenge Organizational Groupthink https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/1157 This paper aims to contribute to the literature on knowledge construction and knowledge sharing within the field of organizational communication. The research underlines the importance of exploring human learning contextually, descriptively, interpretively, and inductively. Through a participant‑observer methodological approach, the study contributes to the literature by introducing detrivialization as a strategy to explore ’participants’ rhetoric related to their organizational procedures. The paper describes a case study that took place for 18 months in a cancer research lab in Belgium, where employees seemed unable to question several taken‑for‑granted practices. The present research primarily reveals the consequences of trivialization, when the rationale of essential organizational practices go unnoticed until observer‑participant challenges the status quo. Also, the study highlights the outcomes of the detrivialization approach, which triggers unprecedented knowledge. Finally, the paper introduces the (de)trivialization dynamic model, which can depict the consequences of opening black‑boxes in organizational contexts. This research is a new approach in organizational ethnomethodology, revisiting ’Garfinkel’s (1967) breaching experiment to describe science in action. The suggested model offers a methodological approach for exploring trivialized organizational dynamics and challenging groupthink. Detrivialization is an opposite approach to trivialization, to offer a new debate topic to scholars aiming to conduct ethnographic research and discourse analysis in organizational communication. Salaheddine Mnasri Stavros Papakonstantinidis Copyright (c) 2020 Copyright © 2003-2021 Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp224‑235 pp224‑235 10.34190/EJKM.18.03.003 Relevance of Adult Higher Education on Knowledge Management in the Healthcare Sector https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/1158 Organizations, including the healthcare sector, are subject to changes in market, technology and regulations. This requires enhanced and different types of knowledge, and has led to an increased demand for adult higher education. However, the competencies required need to be met by the providers of higher education. This article presents a qualitative case study investigating the work relevance of an adult education study bachelor programme for middle managers of the public health sector in Norway. The paper explores how the education has shaped the interplay between the student/practitioner and his/her surroundings. The data in the study have been collected using in‑depth interviews. The case study showcases the potential impacts of higher education within public healthcare management in the workplace, also highlighting the factors that are predominant regarding the application and dissemination of formal knowledge in the workplace. The primary findings of this study are that there is an interplay between the form and content of the education, personal capabilities and individual characteristics of the student (employee/health manager), as well as an organizational maturity pertaining to knowledge‑management and the exposure to organizational innovation in the broader healthcare system. The case study contributes to the field of knowledge management issues by showing how a study programme can support the development of knowledge management practices in an organization, through focusing on the relevance pronounced through the management practices. Tone Vold Hanne M. Haave Copyright (c) 2020 Copyright © 2003-2021 Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp236‑254 pp236‑254 10.34190/EJKM.18.03.004 Knowledge Management and Gamification in Pharma: An Approach in Pandemic times to Develop Product Quality Reviews https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/1159 The Pharma sector is a much‑regulated market, and this means that this industry must test their products tocomply with existing standards to assure the required level of quality and safety before being authorized to lunch thoseproducts to the market. Supply chains, data integrity, and tightening regulations are just examples of business processissues that affect quality strategies on a day‑to‑day basis. Besides, regulatory bodies are increasingly focused not only oncompliance but also on building a culture of quality management. In this domain, the Quality Management System (QMS)is a well‑known system to support processes, procedures, and responsibilities for achieving quality policies and objectives.The QMS also drives consistent metrics, risk calculations, and other trend analysis in developing periodical Product QualityReviews (PQRs), usually corresponding to one year periods, related to the product and with its active substance. The PQRsdevelopment process requires proper management of knowledge so that it can be replicated in different activities. Thispaper proposes the adoption of Gamification techniques in each phase of PQRs. In pandemic times, it is importante toimprove the performance of each activity, gathering the engagement of the employees. Gamification is usually related toemployee motivation, which, in turn, is conducive to the achievement of better results in the organization. In this context,it is necessary to understand how the commitment of stakeholders evolves and if the application of Gamificationtechniques allows enhancing this variable, taking the evolution of the performance as another variable that could beevaluated. This paper focuses on innovation in the area of knowledge management, based on the projection of a Gamifiedmodel related to managing activities of a PQR development project at the level of the active substance. The paperpresents a case study where the proposed model was applied to analyze the performance achieves in a nationalpharmaceutical industry in Portugal. Ricardo Pateiro Marcão; Gabriel Pestana Maria José Sousa Copyright (c) 2020 Copyright © 2003-2021 Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp255‑268 pp255‑268 10.34190/EJKM.18.03.005 The Peculiarities of the Organizational Learning of Clinicians and their Causes https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/1160 The perception of knowledge management has evolved over the last several decades from managing the information to the involvement of employees in knowledge work – in particular, in the OL processes. However, research literature describes various obstacles for organizational learning in hospitals, related to both, the context of the organization’s activities, as well as the clash between the professional autonomy of the clinicians and the bureaucratic requirements regulating the work done by the clinicians. This paper looks into the peculiarities of the OL of clinicians occurring on both individual and collective levels and examines the causes that condition these peculiarities. The paper opens with an introduction, wherein the research problem is substantiated, the aim of the research and the conceptual positions are provided, the logical structure of the research is outlined. The literature review conducted in the second chapter reveals the essence of organizational learning, explains the significance of individual and collective learning for OL. Next, the researchers delve into the work done by clinicians as professionals in the context of OL. The steps taken allow substantiating the three levels of clinicians’ involvement in the OL processes – individual, group/department and organization‑as‑a‑whole. A thorough review of the theoretical background created the conditions for the empirical investigation into the organizational learning of clinicians. The research has been conducted in a small hospital in Lithuania. Highly selective sampling suggests that the data on the OL of the clinicians acquired during the research, and a detailed description of its relation to the context provides reliable insights into various aspects of the organizational learning of clinicians. The conclusions also raise questions that require further investigation, suggest health care administrators and clinicians consider collective efforts to create better quality organizational knowledge that would enable healthcare institutions to cope with continuously emerging ill‑structured problems. Palmira Jucevičienė Akvilė Sadauskienė Robert Leščinskij Copyright (c) 2020 Copyright © 2003-2021 Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp269‑284 pp269‑284 10.34190/EJKM.18.03.006 Knowledge Creation on Edible Vaccines https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/2020 <p>In this paper we delve into the health sector and explore the way vaccines might change in the near future. As new challenges emerge, health professionals are faced with the need for innovative, effective answers to many issues, such as health-threatening viruses and diseases, that grow increasingly more complex, calling for new and practical solutions. Building on this framework, we have decided to address edible vaccines - a completely innovative and simpler way to administer vaccines - not only to understand if it is viewed in a favorable light but also to find out how the knowledge regarding these vaccines can be increased. After a thorough literature review, it became clear that the information about edible vaccines is not evident and easy to access. We then decided to apply a mixed methodology in our study, based on 15 interviews, in person and by email, addressing healthcare professionals, with the intent of gathering their experience and possible knowledge about vaccines. Additionally, an online survey was created and answered by 370 concerned citizens, in order to ascertain their knowledge and receptiveness to this matter. Hereupon, we concluded that, in both samples, there was very limited knowledge about these vaccines, it becoming obvious how important it is to transmit qualified information through accessible means, such as newscasts, scientific papers and magazines, health centers and hospitals, among others. Regarding the level of acceptance by the public in general, our results show that this innovation is dependent on its correct disclosure and propagation, since it is of great advantage and benefit for society. In sum, how the relevant knowledge (including proof of effectiveness) is managed and disseminated will be key.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>traditional vaccines, edible vaccines, field work, mixed methodology, Genetically modified organisms, GMOs</p> Micaela Martins Madalena Costa Marta Gonçalves Sandra Duarte Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp285 301 10.34190/ejkm.18.3.2020 Influence Networks Relating to Health Knowledge Among Nairobi’s Micro-Retailers and Their Clients https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/2068 <p>TRANSFORM, founded in 2015 by Unilever and the UK’s Department for International Development, supports several social enterprises by combining public sector resources with private sector technical capabilities and networks to support innovative social enterprises. Digital programs have enabled social enterprise partnerships to expand the reach of their initiatives to broader audiences including specifically defined groups that hitherto were untapped or difficult to reach. Unilever partnered with TRANSFORM and Every1Mobile to develop UJoin and UAfya in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. UJoin is a social enterprise initiative for promoting business growth among underserved neighborhood shops called dukas. UAfya focuses on young expectant and new mothers, and women interested in family and maternal health topics. Each initiative uses an online community network to discuss and improve knowledge and behaviors regarding livelihoods and health. Online communities provide opportunities to reach specific groups with targeted behavior change messages and campaigns. However, little systematic knowledge is currently available on how to develop, and scale-up effective behavior change programs for digital communities in low-income markets. There is also little information about key guiding principles and best practices that underlie successful digital and online, social networking models. A systematic and participatory tool known as Net-Map was used to explore and understand potential frameworks for establishing digital-based community-driven partnerships with the private sector for health promotion through behavior change. The Net-Map approach was used to help individuals and groups clarify their view of a situation (including networks and power structures), foster discussion, and develop a strategic approach to their networking activities. Eight Net-Maps were constructed, stratified by groups based on location and digital platform. Each map was constructed by an average of 9-10 people for a total of 76 participants. Seventy-six participants identified actors – stakeholders and groups of people involved - and influential links – ways actors are connected - through the Net-Map activity. Among UAfya participants, local government, family, and friends, and the media were identified as the most important actor types. A comparison of the discussions associated with the creation of the maps by UAfya members shows that the two most important link types are conflict, and collaboration/partnership. Among UJoin participants, the three most important actor types were local government, business and financial institutions, and customers. UJoin members identified regulation, and conflict and competition, collaboration and, information sharing as key links between actors. Recommendations based on findings support a vision for scale-up of the UJoin and UAfya programs through accreditation and branding of a novel type of duka. Shop keepers would be trained and knowledgeable to provide high-quality services to improve customer health while also selling health products that benefit the bottom line.</p> Jarret Cassaniti Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp302 324 10.34190/ejkm.18.3.2068 Knowledge Management from Senior Users of Online Health Information Point of View https://academic-publishing.org/index.php/ejkm/article/view/2069 <p>In today’s society, all citizens who need digital information to manage their everyday life must be able to access it and trust it. They should have enough knowledge to use information and communication technologies (ICTs) and online health information (OHI) in an intended and purposeful way. The broader aim of this paper is to present and discuss health knowledge management (KM) from senior users of the online health information point of view. The theoretical point of departure is based on an understanding of health, knowledge and the Internet as social practices. This paper investigates e-Health literacy (eHL) and KM in health amongst seniors aged 65-90. It presents a case study on how they access, apprais, share and apply OHI in comparison to the way they use face-to-face health-encounters. Data comes from 17 open-ended interviews. E-HL and KM concepts are used to analyse and describe online behaviour and knowledge management in health as an interplay between individual and social factors. &nbsp;The results show how participants engage in self- and co-management of their own or others' health and illustrate how they get or receive help to understand OHI. By examining how they use ICT and do (not) trust OHI regarding “serious cases,” this paper provides critical insight into ways seniors acquire information and how they appraise, understand or trust in it. Their information-seeking activities are performed mainly in private settings, seldom with professionals. They have lower levels of trust in their own, individual appraisal skills, compared to collective searches and discussions. Norwegian seniors are cool and pragmatic, and emphatic on the “when needs must, see your GP!”. By examining differences in ICT use, knowledge acquisition and support given or received, the results pinpoint how providers must affirm seniors’ ICT use and individual and collective online health behaviour as assets for healthy ageing. A potential barrier for citizens’ use of OHI and health technology is the built-in understanding of health as an individual capacity and ICT use as an individual activity, compared to a contemporary understanding of health and the Internet as social practices and collective resources. Designers of health technologies and OHI should critically consider built-in understandings of content and users to enhance accessibility and value for citizens of all ages.</p> Tobba Therkildsen Sudmann Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 18 3 pp325 337 10.34190/ejkm.18.3.2069