Poor Economics – Knowledge Economy and The Existing Knowledge Gaps (Higher and Academic Education) In Healthcare; How To Overcome?


  • Cees Th. Smit Sibinga IQM Consulting and University of Groningen, NL
  • Dr. Arwa Al-Riyami SultanQaboos University Hospital https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8649-0650
  • Dr. Maruff Oladejo University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5382-0120
  • Prof. Isaac Kajja College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda




poor economics, knowledge gap, higher education, academic education, healthcare, patient safety


The 2018 United Nations Development Program (UNDP) presents clearly that the lower the human development indices (HDI), the more significant the decrement in secondary and tertiary education enrolment (higher and academic). For example, tertiary education in the very high-HDI countries shows 72% enrolment, where enrolment in the medium and low HDI parts of the world is only 24% and 8% respectively. The data illustrate the impressive paucity in education, hence knowledge production. This paucity in education is predicted to result in a weak knowledge economy of available and accessible knowledge. This root cause analysis discloses a significant area of attention to narrow and bridge the existing knowledge gap. Education in these countries has been focused almost exclusively on vocational education of technical skills with limited theoretical attention (knowledge) and rudimentary attention to topics such as governance, human capacity investment, and appropriate application. Education needs the proper  environment and climate at primary, secondary and tertiary education levels, resulting in an effective knowledge economy and contributing to advancing progress and improvement of quality. The healthcare system for example needs to be available and accessible to all. This environment can only be created and developed when countries establish national structures, institutional environment, and a competent leadership and management cadre. This depends on the existence of a well-educated and motivated cadre of ‘intelligentsia’, competent and responsible policymakers and governors, and creating an inviting and inspiring education climate, irrespective of the level of knowledge to be acquired.The paper provides a global situation analysis of qualified and quantified key elements of the knowledge economy, and  analysis of the impact of differentials between knowledge economies of the various human development groups on national healthcare structures and patient safety as a final outcome. Additionally, it alludes to methods on how to improve on the identified gaps.

Author Biographies

Dr. Arwa Al-Riyami, SultanQaboos University Hospital

Department of Haematology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman

Senior consultant haematopathologist, programme director haematopathologyresidency programme inb Oman Medical Specialty Boraed

Dr. Maruff Oladejo, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Educational policy, planning and economics of education.

Lecturer Department of Educational Management, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Prof. Isaac Kajja, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Deputy Principle College of Health SCiences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Specialist in Orthopaedic surgery and Transfusion Medicine, associate professor Orhtho[aedic Surgery, Mulago Hospital, Kmpala, Uganda. 



27 Jan 2022



Special issue on University of the Future