Learning Analytics in Flipped Classrooms: A Scoping Review
Keywords:active learning, flipped classroom, learning analytics, virtual learning environment, educational data mining
AbstractThe Flipped Classroom (FC) is an instruction method, where the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Online material is given to students in order to gain necessary knowledge before class, while class time is devoted to application of this knowledge and reflection. The hypothesis is that there could be deep and creative discussions when teacher and students physically meet, which has known a significant surge of popularity in the past decade. A marked recent trend in the FC is the increased use of Learning Analytics (LA) to support the development of the FC and students’ reflexive learning. The aim of this paper is to investigate the literature on applications of LA in FCs, and to determine the best practices and needs for technological development supporting LA in the FC by means of a scoping review. This literature review revealed that there is potential in using LA in the FC, especially as a means to predict students’ learning outcome and to support adaptive learning and improvement on the curriculum. However, further long‑term studies and development is necessary to encourage self‑directed learning in students and to develop the whole of the FC for a more diverse population of students. We anticipate an increased and expanded use of LA to come, with focus on predictive and prescriptive analytics providing more adaptive learning experience. We also anticipate that LA will expand beyond data mining to correlate student performance and online engagement with the aim to include a wider range of possibilities of interventions and adaptation of the learning experience.
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